شبه الجملة في اللغة الانجليزية

defining and non-defining clauses هي عبارة عن أشباه جمل تبدأ بكلمات مثل

who/whom /which/whose
وغيرها وتأتي بعد الاسم لتصفه

اذا كانت defining يعني
محددة ومعرّفة للاسم
فلا يجوز حذفها لأن المعنى يتأثر

مثال
The man is my father

هنا لو قلت
الرجل أبي
هل حددت وعرّفت الرجل الذي أتحدث عنه؟؟؟

الجواب :لا

لكن عندما أقول

The man who standing there is my father

الرجل الذي يقف هناك هو أبي

هنا حدّدت الرجل الذي أتحدث عنه
و هو الذي يقف هناك

فشبه الجملة

who is standing there
نسميها defining clause
لأنها ساعدتني في أن أحدد و أعرّف الرجل الذي أتحدث عنه

ولو حذفتها لأصبح المعنى غامضاً على السامع لذلك
لا يجوز أن أحذفها لأنها تحدد و توضح المعنى

أما ال
non-defining clause

فهي لا تساعدني في تحديد الاسم
وإنما تعطيني معلومات أكثر عنه

مثال
Rabat is the capital of Morocco

الرباط عاصمة المملكالمغرب

 

 

هذه جملة واضحة ومحددة

لكن لو قلت

Rabat, which is a big city, is the capital of Morocco
هنا أضفت شبه الجملة
which is a big city
و وضعتها بين فاصلتين لأشير الى عدم أهمية هذه الجملة و التي تعطيني فقط


معلومات إضافية عن الرباط
و هي أنها مدينة كبيرة

ولو حذفت which is a big city
لما تأثر المعنى في ذهن السامع

 

وباختصار

defining clause

لا يجوز حذفها ولا يجوز وضعها بين فاصلتين



non-defining clause

يجوز حذفها لأنها فقط تعطينا معلومات إضافية عن الاسم، كما أنه يجب أن نضعها بين فاصلتين لنبين عدم أهميتها و جواز حذفها ، كما يجوز ان لا نضعها بين فاصلتين انما نكتفي بفاصلة واحده (تابع الأمثلة في نهاية الدرس).

 

وباختصار اكثر يمكننا اتباع القاعدة التالية:

 

1) Defining Means:– important (جملة هامة)
– can’t be deleted (لا يمكن حذفها)
– “that” can’t be used (لا يمكن وضع that بدل الضمائر الموصولة)
– NO Commas (لا يوجد فواصل في الجملة)


2) Non-Defining Means:

– not important

(جملة غير هامة)

– can be deleted (يمكن حذفها)
– “that” can be used (يمكن وضع that بدل الضمائر الموصولة)
– We must use commas (يجب يجب يجب .. ان يكون هناك فاصلة في الجملة)

 

والآن نأتي للأمثلة:

اولا: امثلة وتمرينات على Defining Clauses:
Defining Relative clauses Exercise

1- That’s the girl. She spoke to me yesterday.
Correct answer:
That’s the girl who spoke to me yesterday.
2- What’s the name of the book? You want me to read it.Correct answers:
What’s the name of the book (that) you want me to read?
What’s the name of the book (which) you want me to read?
What’s the name of the book you want me to read?

 

3- The hotel we stayed in. The hotel was very expensive.

Correct answers:
The hotel we stayed in was very expensive.
The hotel (which) we stayed in was very expensive.
The hotel (that) we stayed in was very expensive.
The hotel where we stayed was very expensive.

 

4- I rent a house. It is very small.

Correct answers:
The house I rent is very small.
The house (which) I rent is very small.
The house (that) I rent is very small.

 

5- The car was stolen. It was a BMW.

Correct answers:
The car which was stolen was a BMW.
The car that was stolen was a BMW.

 

6- The man smoked forty cigarettes a day. He died of a heart attack.

Correct answers:
The man who died of a heart attack smoked forty cigarettes a day.
The man who smoked forty cigarettes a day died of a heart attack.

 

7- That’s the building. I work there.

Correct answers:
That’s the building where I work.

 

8- That’s the boy. His mother works in the post office.

Correct answers:
That’s the boy whose mother works in the post office.

 

9- The businessman was very rich. I saw him last night.

Correct answers:
The businessman I saw last night was very rich.
The businessman (whom) I saw last night was very rich.
The businessman (who) I saw last night was very rich.
The businessman (that) I saw last night was very rich.

 

10- That’s the dog. Its owner is French.

Correct answer:
That’s the dog whose owner is French.


ثانية: امثلة وتمرينات على Non-Defining Clauses:
Non-Defining Relative Clauses Exercise

1- There is a hotel doctor on call,
who will provide emergency medical treatment.
2- There is a team of highly qualified secretaries available,
who will help you with your paperwork.3- There is 24 hour room service,
which provides an excellent selection of snacks and drinks.

4- There is a typical English pub,
where you can enjoy a pint of bitter.

5- There is a gymnasium in the basement,
where you can keep fit.

6- There is a qualified chiropodist available,
who provides a manicure service in your room.

7- We have a ticket reservation service,
where you can get seats for all the hit shows.

8- There is a top class hairdressing salon on the ground floor,
where you can get your hair done.

9- There is a typical English fish and chip restaurant,
where you can have cod and chips.

10- If you have a problem, contact the senior receptionist,
who will deal with it as a top priority.

11- There is a fax machine at the front desk,
where you can send and receive faxes.

12- There is a dry-cleaning service available,
which will clean your clothes overnight.

13- Be sure to speak to our tourist guide,
who will tell you about interesting places to visit.

14- There is a sauna in the hotel,
where you can sweat out the dirt from the City.

15- There is a night club in the hotel,
where you can unwind over a few drinks.

16- There is a five-star restaurant,
where you can relax over a gourmet meal.

17- There is a trained nursery nurse available,
who will look after your small children whilst you go shopping.

18- There is a shuttle bus service,
which will take you to and from the airport.

19- For a late drink, come to our night-club,
which stays open until 4.00 a.m.

20- For that perfect gift, come to our gift shop,
where you can buy goods at duty free prices.

 

كلمات دليلية: